Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review PMC

Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review PMC

Following an expert panel review, The Institute of Medicine (2008) reported that exposure therapy is the only treatment with enough empirical evidence to support its recommendation for the treatment of PTSD. To our knowledge, there is no established minimally important change threshold for the HIT-6 in headache attributable to mild TBI. Studies of chronic migraine samples found that HIT-6 total score decrease of 2.3 to 3.7 units represented at least somewhat better headache. Headache intensity and frequency did not significantly improve despite changes in HIT-6 total score. This discrepancy may be attributable to better sensitivity to change in self-reported disability for nonpharmacological pain treatments compared with pain diaries,48 although there is scant research on the suitability of any outcome for PTH attributable to mTBI. Our review relied on the information presented in identified systematic reviews to assess the eligibility of their included primary studies (i.e., the full-texts of primary studies included within systematic reviews were not reviewed to confirm eligibility).

post traumatic stress disorder cognitive behavioral therapy

Britvić, Radelić and Urlić (2006), Lampe, Barbist, Gast, Reddemann and Schüßler (2014), Monson et al. (2006), Nacasch, Fostick and Zohar (2011), Sijbrandij et al. (2007), and Gilboa‐Schechtman et al. (2010) used the PTSD Symptom Scale – Interview Version (Foa, Riggs, Dancu & Rothbaum, 1993). Britvić et al. (2006) and Monson et al. (2006) also used the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) (Blake et al., 1995), as did Levi, Bar‐Haim, Kreiss and Fruchter https://ecosoberhouse.com/article/alcohol-neuropathy-symptoms-and-treatment/ (2015), and Markowitz et al. (2015). D’Andrea and Poole (2012) used the Brief Symptom Inventory and Dissociative Experiences Scale, while Kellett and Beail (1997) used a structured clinical interview based on the DSM‐IV criteria. The need to routinely observe evidence‐based recommendations for effective treatment of PTSD is highlighted and factors undermining practitioner engagement with CBT‐based interventions for the treatment of PTSD are identified.

Experiences during and immediately after the traumatic experience

The US Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder’s PTSDPubs database (formerly PILOTS) was searched separately on the same date using the individual terms ‘recurrence’ and ‘recurrent’ and limited to peer-reviewed articles. The included systematic reviews were from Germany,21 Canada,14 and the Netherlands.5 All three reviews5,14,21 were published in 2016. Relevant primary studies included in the systematic reviews were published between 2007 and 2016. Three relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses5,14,21 and two additional relevant RCTs36,37 were identified and included in this review. TF-CBT was originally geared toward helping children who were the victims of sexual abuse, but its scope has widened to include children and adolescents who have experienced a single or repeated experience of sexual, physical, or mental abuse or who have developed post-traumatic symptoms, depression, or anxiety. While it can be difficult to prevent PTSD, there are research-backed treatments — including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) — to help you manage your symptoms.

Only one study [63] explored cognitive ability as a potential covariate, finding that the participants who were in the recurrent (termed ‘relieved-worsening PTSD’) group had significantly lower cognitive ability scores than those in the ‘low-stable’ group. Table 5 shows the factors considered as predictors in each study, with significant associations presented in bold. The majority of included studies (22/35) explored at least one covariate; the remaining studies cognitive behavioral interventions for substance abuse either did not explore covariates or combined recurrent trajectories with other trajectories in their analyses of predictors. Fan et al. [42] found that 3.3% of 1,573 earthquake survivors experienced ‘relapsing/remitting’ PTSD. Liang et al. [49, 50] found that 17.7% of 301 earthquake survivors experienced the ‘relapsing’ trajectory of PTSD. An et al. [33] found that 37% of 246 adolescents experienced ‘recurrent dysfunction’ after experiencing an earthquake.

Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT)

Such high dropout raises concern regarding the utility of the approach, with 59% of psychologists surveyed believing that the exposure component was likely to increase patients’ wish to terminate treatment early (Zayfert et al., 2005). These findings suggest high dropout rates may be a key factor in practitioners’ decisions not to select CBT as the first‐line treatment for PTSD sufferers, opting instead for alternative approaches such as PDT. Despite evidence supporting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)‐based interventions as the most effective approach for treating post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in randomised control trials, alternative treatment interventions are often used in clinical practice. Psychodynamic (PDT)‐based interventions are one example of such preferred approaches, this is despite comparatively limited available evidence supporting their effectiveness for treating PTSD.

Youth with PTSD get relief from proven treatment – Northwestern Now

Youth with PTSD get relief from proven treatment.

Posted: Wed, 13 Sep 2023 07:00:00 GMT [source]

The treatment is particularly sensitive to the unique problems of youth with post-traumatic stress and mood disorders resulting from sexual abuse, as well as from physical abuse, violence, or grief. Because the client is usually a child, TF-CBT often brings non-offending parents or other caregivers into treatment and incorporates principles of family therapy. The current review suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for both acute and chronic PTSD, with both short-term and long-term benefit, following a range of traumatic experiences. It has been found to be at least as effective as various other psychological interventions.

Clinical diagnostic

The review by Olthuis et al.14 included adults (≥18 years of age) with a primary diagnosis of PTSD or subclinical PTSD according to the DSM. The number of included participants in the relevant individual RCTs ranged between 44 and 80, with a total of 287. The mean age, type of trauma experienced, and number or type of comorbidities of patients were not reported. The third systematic review5 included patients with a clinician-obtained diagnosis of PTSD or with elevated levels of PTSD symptoms based on a PTSD self-report instrument; however, only results from studies of participants with a full diagnosis of PTSD were relevant to our review (and will be further discussed).

  • Five studies presented the prevalence of recurrence within populations diagnosed with PTSD.
  • We would therefore expect prevalence rates to be extremely small, given that the majority of trauma-exposed people will not develop PTSD in the first place [3], let alone have recurrent episodes.
  • TF-CBT was originally geared toward helping children who were the victims of sexual abuse, but its scope has widened to include children and adolescents who have experienced a single or repeated experience of sexual, physical, or mental abuse or who have developed post-traumatic symptoms, depression, or anxiety.
  • One systematic review21 summarized four RCTs relevant under our inclusion criteria, while the systematic reviews by Olthuis et al.14 and Sijbrandij et al.5 each included five relevant RCTs.
  • Additionally, studies did not typically control for exposure to subsequent trauma, meaning that ‘recurrences’ of PTSD identified may actually be new episodes, rather than a relapse.

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